PHARMACY EARLY DAYS

The first known pharmacy in the World was established in 766 8th century in Baghdad, Iraq the then Babylon, Asia Minor. In Europe, first pharmacies dated back to the 11th century.  In Nigeria (Africa) the first Pharmacy was opened by a European, Mr. Richard Zaccheus Bailey 1829-1911 (aka the doctor) in the year 1887 19th century along Balogun Street, Lagos having obtained a license from the Governor-in-Council to do so.

THE MEDICINE /PHARMACY MAN AS ONE – ( HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL) 

In the 13th century in Europe, pharmacy as a separate profession from medicine originated when the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Fredrick ll of Hohenstaufen issued a series of edicts in 1240 separating the two professions out of one. Since that time for centuries pharmacy was taught and practiced as a technical course and an aspect of medicine. Changes and events since 17th and 18th centuries from the dogmatic and empirical pharmaceutical data to scientific findings and reasoning (due to development of basic sciences such as chemistry) led to emphasis on manufacturing and distribution of drugs. i.e. Pharmacy ( control of medicines and medicine products).

APPRENTICE DISPENSERS

In 1899, the first batch of dispensers was trained in Lagos under an apprenticeship         scheme. These dispensers served their apprenticeship with medical doctors and they thereafter worked in government hospitals. The Poisons and Pharmacy Ordinance specified the type of instructions the dispensers should receive. In 1902, the regulation of practice of pharmacy was placed under the control of the Resident and Chief Medical Officer.

THE PIONEER SELLING DISPENSERS

It was the selling dispensers such as the Nigerian Medicine Stores, Alban Pharmacy, Boots Pure Drugs, Kingsway Chemists, Paul & Paul Chemists, Commercial Medicine Stores, West African Drug Company etc. that were opened in the 1920’s that formed the Association of Dispensers which was registered in 1927 under Section 22 of the Company Ordinance of 1922 that transformed to the Pharmacutical Society of Nigeria (PSN) of today. The association was open to dispensers in the Civil service but instead of joining, the dispensers in Civil service formed a parallel organization that metamorphosed into the Nigerian Union of Pharmacists, NUP

FIRST FORMAL TRAINING OF DISPENSERS

In 1922, the School of Pharmacy at Yaba Higher College, Lagos was established to train dispensers. In 1927, the Board of Medical Examiners under the Poisons and Pharmacy Ordinance of 1927 was enacted. Dr. A Robertson was the first Chairman and the Secretary was Mr. Nicol. The Board was the first regulatory body in Nigeria’s history established to regulate and control pharmacy education and practice in Nigeria. In 1936 the Poisons and Pharmacy Ordinance was enacted. The word “dispenser” was first defined as “a person holding a certificate granted under the provisions of the Poisons and Pharmacy Ordinance 1936 or possessing other prescribed qualifications who by virtue of his holding such certificate or other qualifications has been granted a license under this Ordinance to mix, compound, prepare and dispense drugs and poisons where  license is still in force” The ordinance made provisions for the appointment of inspectors and registration of pharmaceutical premises after inspection, as well as for  Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendor’s license due to shortage of pharmacies.

REGULATION OF SALES OF MEDICINES

In 1945, the drug laws provided for selling dispensers as persons authorized to sell drugs and poisons in Nigeria. Section 56 of the Pharmacy Ordinance 1945 provided for the regulation of sale and distribution of drugs and poisons in registered premises and the inspection of such premises. Section 60 of the Pharmacy Ordinance 1945 controlled the sale of Patent and/or Proprietary Medicines and defined “Packed Goods” and “Patent and / or Proprietary Medicine” 

TRAINING OF CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS

In 1946, the training of Chemists and Druggists started in the School of Pharmacy, Yaba, it was not until 1954 that provisions were made in the Laws of Nigeria specifically for the importation and sale of poisons, Section 17 of Cap131 of the Laws of Nigeria, 1954.


 

OPENING OF INDIGENOUS PHARMACIES

In 1946, the first Nigerian-owned pharmacy was opened by Mr. Joseph Ogunlesi on Victoria Street (now Nnamdi Azikwe Street) in Lagos because the earlier ones were elite pharmacies for Europeans and very few Nigerians. Throughout 1960’s, pharmacies remained concentrated in Lagos and the old Western Region (including former Mid Western Region) with old Eastern Region and Kano showing their significant figures. In Nigeria by 1946, there were 3 Community Pharmacies; in 1969, 200 community pharmacies were operated; in 1974, it rose to 600; in 1984, it increased to 1066; presently there are 2500 registered pharmacies in the nation.

PHARMACY TRADE UNIONS

Nigerian Union of Pharmacists, NUP was formed in 1947. It served to put pressure on Government to improve compensation and labour conditions for Pharmacists. PSN was registered in 1956 with the government CAC. In 1977, when Nigeria’s Central Labour Organization restructured its house unions, the NUP opted out formally from union activities leaving the PSN as the only professional umbrella body of Pharmacists.

PHARMACISTS BOARD OF NIGERIA

In 1964, the Pharmacy Act of 1964 (No 20) was enacted by the House of Representatives to set up Pharmacists Board of Nigeria (PBN).

THE  DRUG LAWS OF FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA (LFN)

There are many laws governing the regulation and control of Pharmacy in Nigeria. They are as follows:

  1. The Counterfeit and Fake Drugs and Unwholesome Processed Foods (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, Cap C34, LFN 2004 and Dangerous Drugs Act, Cap D1, LFN 2004;
  2. The Food and Drugs Act, Cap F32, LFN 2004
  3. The Food, Drugs and Related Products (Registration etc) Act, Cap F33, LFN 2004;
  4. The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control Act, Cap N1, LFN 2004
  5. The National Drug Formulary and Essential Drugs List Act, Cap N29, LFN 2004;
  6. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency Act, Cap N30, LFN 2004:
  7. The Pharmacists Council of Nigeria Act, Cap P17 LFN 2004; and
  8. The Poisons and Pharmacy Act, Cap 535, LFN 1990